Pongal 2024: A South Indian Harvest Festival

Pongal Festival Celebration

Pongal is a South Indian Festival celebrated in the southern states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Karnataka. It is a four-day harvest festival expressing gratitude to nature for its bounty. According to diversity in culture and belief, Pongal is celebrated with different names in different states of India. Its other names are Makara Sankranti, Utharayana and Maghi. In this post, we are going to explore the Pongal festival, its significance, traditions, and exuberant festivities that make it a cherished part of Indian culture.

Pongal Festival Date

According to the Gregorian calendar, Pongal is celebrated between the 14th to 16th of January every year. This falls in the tenth Tamil month called Thai. The rituals start on the last day of the ninth month of Margazhi and last for four days.

Pongal Meaning

The word Pongal is derived from the Tamil word Ponga, which means to boil. The Pongal word means overflowing which signifies happiness and prosperity. Rice is boiled in milk and offered first to the gods, then to the cows, and then to family members.

Significance of Pongal:

Pongal, also known as Thai Pongal, is a four-day harvest festival observed in the month of Thai (January-February), dedicated to the Sun God, Surya. The festival marks the end of the winter solstice and the beginning of the auspicious Uttarayana period. Pongal holds immense agricultural importance as it coincides with the harvesting of crops, primarily rice, sugarcane, and turmeric. The term ‘Pongal’ itself refers to the boiling over of rice in a traditional clay pot, symbolizing prosperity and abundance.

Harvest Festival of Tamil Nadu

Pongal is a Harvest Festival in Tamil Nadu. The festival is a thanksgiving ceremony dedicated to Mother Nature by the farmers for the overflowing harvest, the Sun, and the farm animals for their assistance in providing a successful harvest. Know more about:- Harvest Festivals of India

The Pongal festival celebration marks the travel of the Sun toward the equinox for six months. It is believed that the auspicious month is a traditional month for weddings as the end of the harvest season is associated with an abundance of food. The month preceding Pongal is considered to be made up entirely of inauspicious days and the month following Pongal of auspicious days. 

Pongal Preparation

Pongal is the festival of Tamilnadu thus Tamil culture can be seen during the festival celebrations. Tamilians decorate their houses with mangoes and banana leaves. They make colourful patterns made up of rice flour. Further, the dishes are been served traditionally by using banana leaves.

Pongal Celebration

The Pongal word means overflowing which signifies happiness and prosperity. On this auspicious day, Tamilians boil milk in new clay pots and further, they overflow to portray abundance. Devotees also boil the first rice of the season to the Sun which is – termed Surya Maangalyam.

A senior member of the family conducts the cooking and the rest of the family assists him or her or watches the event. When the water starts boiling, rice is put into the pot – after a member, the family ceremoniously puts three handfuls of rice in first. 

The other ingredients of this special dish are Chakkarai (brown cane sugar) or Katkandu (sugar candy), milk (cow’s milk or coconut milk), roasted green gram (Payaru), raisins, cashew nuts, and a few pods of cardamom. 

When the meal is ready, it is first put on a banana leaf and the family prays for a few minutes to thank the natural spirit, the sun, and the farmers.

Pongal is a South Indian festival celebrated in different states such as Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Pondicherry in India. Pongal is also celebrated by the Tamil Community in Shri Lanka.

Four Days of Pongal:

Bhogi:- 1st Day of Pongal

The day before the Pongal festival is called Bhogi. On this day, people discard their older belongings and go for new things. This is linked to the concept that only change is inevitable in this world. Across the country, the rituals are similar to that of the Holika Dahan celebration in North India. Homes are cleaned and decorated, and a bonfire is lit using discarded items. This symbolizes the removal of negativity and the embrace of positivity in the coming year.

Thai Pongal:- 2nd Day of Pongal

Thai Pongal, the main day of the festival, is a time of gratitude for the bountiful harvest. On this day, families come together to cook the traditional Pongal dish. Pongal, made from freshly harvested rice, jaggery, milk, and ghee, is prepared outdoors, usually in the courtyard. As the dish boils over, people joyously exclaim, “Pongalo Pongal,” symbolizing prosperity and abundance.

The second day is an important celebration called the Pongal festival. In Tamil, Pongal means “Overflowing” or “Abundant”. As the Tamil families are mostly Farming dependent, this festival is celebrated as a thanksgiving to the Sun God for a good harvest and also as a prayer for the next season. On the eve, people make food with the new rice along with sweets and savouries. Sugar cane is an important item in this Pongal celebration.

Jallikattu:- 3rd Day of Pongal


The third day is for the buffaloes without which people cannot do farming. They decorate the horns of the buffaloes and games like taming the bull are played in almost all the villages. It is popularly known as “Jallikattu”.

The third day is dedicated to honouring cattle, which play a crucial role in agriculture. Cattle are adorned with garlands and painted horns, and a special meal is prepared for them. Traditional bull-taming events and races are organized in some regions, adding a cultural and competitive element to the celebrations.

Kaanum Pongal:- 4th Day of Pongal

The fourth day is called “Kaanum Pongal” which means the reunion of friends and families. Families visit temples, parks, and other recreational spots, sharing a special meal. Sisters pray for the well-being of their brothers on this day, reinforcing the bonds of familial love. Thus, the Pongal celebration is not only a festival but the life of the farmers.

Traditional Pongal Cuisine:

Pongal is not only a festival but a gastronomic delight as well. The traditional Pongal dish, cooked in earthen pots, is central to the celebrations. Besides the sweet Pongal, savoury versions, known as ‘Ven Pongal’ or ‘Khara Pongal,’ are also prepared. The feast includes a variety of dishes, showcasing the culinary diversity of the region. Other specialities include sugarcane, coconut-based sweets, and dishes made from newly harvested crops, creating a sensory symphony that defines the essence of Pongal.

Decorations and Kolam Art:

Homes and public spaces come alive with vibrant decorations during Pongal. Kolam, a traditional South Indian art form, plays a significant role. Women create intricate patterns using rice flour, chalk, or coloured powders at the entrance of their homes. These designs, not only aesthetically pleasing but also spiritually significant, symbolize prosperity and ward off negative energy. The entire neighbourhood becomes a canvas of colours, reflecting the communal spirit of the festival.

Pongal in Urban Spaces:

While Pongal has deep rural roots, the festival is equally embraced in urban areas. Urban dwellers often adapt the traditions to fit their lifestyle, incorporating Pongal celebrations into their busy schedules. Community events, potluck dinners, and cultural programs provide a platform for city dwellers to experience the warmth and unity of Pongal.

Cultural Performances and Music:

Pongal celebrations are incomplete without traditional music and dance performances. Folk dances like Kolattam and Kummi are performed during the festival, reflecting the cultural heritage of the region. Additionally, Pongal marks the beginning of the Tamil month of Thai, and traditional music concerts and dance performances are organized to usher in the auspicious period.

Pongal and Environmental Consciousness:

In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the environmental impact of festivals. Pongal, with its connection to nature and agriculture, has not remained untouched by this consciousness. Many communities now opt for eco-friendly practices, such as using clay pots instead of metal ones and avoiding synthetic colours in Kolam designs. This reflects a collective effort to celebrate tradition while respecting the environment.


Pongal, with its deep agricultural roots and cultural significance, is a festival that transcends geographical boundaries. It is a celebration of nature’s bounty, family bonds, and the rich cultural heritage of South India. Overall, it is a festival to encourage social cohesiveness and unite people by bringing them together in a common function. There are many songs about Thai Pongal and there is much Tamil literature about it. As we immerse ourselves in the festivities, let us not only savour the delicious Pongal dishes but also appreciate the values of gratitude, community, and sustainability that define this joyous occasion. Pongalo Pongal!